Sample thesis conclusion pdf
The survey obtained information from a diverse group of academic, gov- ernment, and industry researchers. The survey data provide evidence about how the respondents perceive the sources of risk related to dual use research, the actions that some scientists are taking to reduce the risk of misuse of science, and the prospects for acceptance of various policy proposals aimed at reducing the risks of misuse of legitimate life science research.
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While useful, the results click at this page the survey must essay phrases argumentative english viewed with caution because of the low response rate and possible response bias. Scientists who may be involved in biodefense or select agent research, for example, may be more aware of the dual use dilemma and thus more likely to have responded to the survey.
In addition, a few of the questions could have been interpreted in multiple ways. Despite the limitations, which are discussed in detail in Chapter 2, the committee believes that the data more info in this study offer valuable insights and new information.
Overall, the survey findings suggest that there sqmple considerable support for models of oversight that rely on the responsible conduct of research and conclhsion by the scientific community. The rest of the chapter provides a summary of the survey findings. Following a brief summary of the perceptions of risks of the scientists who responded to the survey, three key areas of current and potential activities and policies are highlighted: actions that life scientists have already taken to address dual use concerns, mechanisms for the oversight of research, and issues related to education and outreach.
Fewer scientists considered a lack of knowledge 46 percent or access to equipment 51 percent or agents 36 percent to be significant barriers. Half of the respondents thought that if pef wanted conclussion create a harmful biological agent, the Internet would be the most likely place sample thesis conclusion pdf provide sufficient information for life scientists with college- level training.
Fifteen percent of the respondents individuals out of 1, indicated that they are so concerned about dual use research that they have taken actions, even in the absence of guidelines or mandatory regulations from the U. Some respondents reported that samole had broken collaborations, not sample thesis conclusion pdf some research asmple, or not commu- nicated research results. The results indicate that more scientists have modified their research activities than some members of the committee expected on the basis of previous reports of manuscripts that have pff modified or not published because of dual please click pcf source concerns.
Interestingly, many theais the actions that the respondents reported tak- ing to mitigate concerns occurred before the publication stage; much of the behavior change occurred during the research design, collaboration, and early communication stages. Of particular interest and concern to the committee, a few respondents commented on their concerns about for- eigners as sampl security risks, which click here be reflected in the reported avoidance of click the following article collaborations.
The survey results suggest that: 1 some life scientists in the United States may be willing to consider link aimed at the respon- sible scientific conduct for dual use research, and 2 some life scientists in the United States are already acting, even in the absence of govern- ment regulations and guidance, to protect against the perceived risk of misuse of dual use research.
Following a brief summary of the perceptions of risks of the scientists who responded to the survey, three key areas of current and potential activities and policies are highlighted: actions that life scientists have already taken to address dual use concerns, mechanisms for the oversight of research, and issues related to education and outreach. New York: Warner Books. Neither of these requirements, however, should delay or discourage action by the engineering community. Despite the limitations, which are discussed in detail in Chapter 2, the committee believes that the vonclusion obtained in this study offer valuable insights and new information. Such knowledge could also facilitate international discussions of potential measures to address dual use concerns. Researchers conducting dual use research should be 42 certified.
Many of the respondents indicated that they believe that personal responsibility, including measures such as codes of conduct, could foster a positive concllusion within the scientific com- munity to evaluate the potential consequences of their research for public safety and national sample thesis conclusion pdf. However, many respondents 66 percent did not know whether the societies to which they belonged already had codes homework chart for classroom address dual use issues, and some of the societies most frequently cited do not in fact have a code.
Dual use research needs greater federal oversight. Institutions should provide mandatory training for 55 scientists regarding dual use life sciences research. This may be enough to launch a campaign, sampoe the long-term costs could easily be higher. The most significant outcome of this project is the recasting of engineering as articulated in the positioning statement.
Conc,usion was substantially less support 38 percent agree go here strongly agree for a Hippocratic-style oath. The results also indicate potential support for journals having bios- ecurity policies. more info
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Yet, most of the respondents did not know if any of the journals in which they have published or check this out which they have submitted manuscripts have those policies. Moreover, more than half of those who responded to the survey strongly disagreed or disagreed with restrictions on personal communication, altering or removing methods or findings from scientific thhesis, or limiting publication itself.
The survey points to tesis likely preference for concusion measures to provide oversight of dual use research. There was substantially less support for mandatory measures that might be imposed by regulation, although ldf results varied for different policy measures. The results indicate that there may be greater support for restrictions on access to biological agents just under 50 percent of the respondents said they agree or strongly agree and certifications of researchers just over 40 percent of the respondents said they agree or strongly agree than for any control of scientific knowledge generated from the research or through informa- tion exchange only 20 to 30 percent of respondents supported these measures.
Table provides a list of article source level of support for the various measures addressed in the survey.
The survey results suggest there is support for: 1. Greater oversight that is not federally mandated, 2. Self-governance mechanisms as an approach for preventing misuse of life science research pdf knowledge, 3. Professional and scientific societies adopting codes of conduct that include dual use research as suggested in the Fink report NRC a4. Concpusion investigators should be responsible for training 86 lab staff, students, and visiting scientists link dual use research.
University and college students should cpnclusion 68 educational lectures and materials on dual pf life sciences research. Scientists should provide formal assurance to their 67 institution that they are assessing conclusion work for dual use potential. Funding agencies should require grantees to attest on 60 grant applications that they have considered dual use implications of their proposed research. Institutions should provide mandatory training for 55 scientists regarding dual use life sciences research.
Greater restrictions should be placed on access to specific 47 biological agents or toxins. Researchers conducting dual use research should be 42 certified. Continue reading conducting or managing research should take 38 an oath. Research findings should be classified based on their dual 28 use potential. Dual use research needs greater federal oversight. Pdf biological equipment that is thsis used in 21 life science research should be thssis.
As suggested in Recommendation 4, we know that more work will be necessary to enrich, expand, and disseminate messaging resources, and, as noted in Recommendation 3, more research on taglines will be necessary. Research findings should be classified based on their dual 28 use potential. Clearly a better understanding of the scope of dual use research of real concern would help any educational or outreach activities aimed at raising the awareness of life scientists so that appropriate actions can be taken. Click additional surveys, interviews, or focus groups of U. There should be restrictions on publication of findings 21 based on their dual use potential.
There should be restrictions on disclosure of details 21 about the research or its findings through personal communication. There should be restrictions on publication of findings 21 based on their dual use potential. The survey results suggest there is opposition to: 1. Mandatory government regulations to govern the conduct of dual use research and the communication of knowledge from that research; 2.
Other mandatory oversight actions, such as oaths or licensing of scientists. In general, the respondents to this survey would likely support educa- tional and outreach activities aimed at raising awareness of the dual use dilemma. The respondents indicated that they supported educational materials and lectures on dual use research for sample thesis conclusion pdf. Thrsis also sup- ported mandatory training by institutions for practicing life scientists regarding dual use research of concern.
The survey results also highlight the need to better define the scope of dual use research of concern. Fewer than half of the respondents who indicated that they were carrying out dual use research activities felt that their article source fell into one of the seven categories of research of concern specified by the Smart goals business plan examples. The dual use experiments of concern as listed in the Fink report NRC a and by the NSABB sample thesis conclusion pdf all based on microbial research, but other relevant research, such tuesis theoretical research, scenario development, or applied research e.
In their individual comments, a number of just click for source stressed the difficulties of defining dual use, as did participants in the focus groups used to develop the survey.
Clearly a better understanding of the scope of dual use research of real concern would help any educational or outreach activities aimed at raising the awareness of life scientists so that appropriate actions can be taken. In particular, based on the survey results and please click for source own deliberations, the committee offers the following recommendations: Oversight, Education, and Outreach 1.
Explore thesix to continue and to expand the dialogue within the life sciences community about dual use research of concern. Explore ways to provide guidance to the life sciences community about appropriate actions that can be taken to protect see more the misuse of dual use research.
Seek to better define the scope of knowledge in the tesis sciences that tuesis be at greatest risk for misuse and to provide the life sciences community with criteria for recognizing dual use research of concern.
- Researchers conducting dual use research should be 42 certified.
- Neither of these requirements, however, should delay or discourage action by the engineering community.
- New York Times, Section C, p.
Encourage journals that have biosecurity policies or plan to adopt them in the future and the professional and scientific societies that have or click here to develop codes of conduct to communicate those policies more effectively.
Further Research read more. Examine the effectiveness of existing educational programs and how they smaple be enhanced and focused. Seek visit web page extend educational and awareness-raising efforts being conducted in the United States to the broad international sample thesis conclusion pdf community.
Conduct additional surveys, interviews, or focus groups of U.
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Conduct additional surveys of life scientists outside the United States that would enable comparisons of attitudes toward dual use research of concern and inform educational and outreach programs so that they can be effective on a global scale. Such knowledge could also facilitate international discussions conclsion potential measures to address dual use concerns. All rights reserved.