Niosomes review articles pdf
The organic solvent is evaporated to obtain the final product [ 827 ldf, 37 ]. It is crucial for the surfactant used for the preparation of niosomes to consist of a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail.
Ester-type surfactants are less suitable aticles they are easily degraded by esterases in vivo, making them unstable in the body. Comparatively, ether-type surfactants are a better choice. The size of niosomes increases proportionally with the increase in hydrophilic—lipophilic balance HLB read more surfactants.
If the HLB value falls between 4 and 8, niosome vesicle formation is considered relatively stable and optimal [ 82740 ]. For instance, addition of cholesterol provides rigidity and reduces leaking in niosomes [ 41 ]. Hydration temperature plays an important role in the adticles of surfactants into vesicles and the shape and size formation of niosomes.
Common problems related to preparation of niosomes niosomes review articles pdf aggregation, fusion, and leaking, which are affected by the physiochemical properties of vesicles including their size, charge, lamellarity, elasticity, and thermodynamic phase. Preparation of proniosomes, which are a dried form of niosomes, might overcome the limitations mentioned because proniosomes hydrate immediately before use to yield an aqueous niosome dispersion [ 44 ].
Niosomes are generally nontoxic to humans [ 27 ].
Researchers studied pdr toxic effect of surfactants in a topical niosome formulation on the proliferation of keratinocytes. The results show that ester was less toxic than ether because of enzymatic degradation of ester bonds.
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It had been proven that the physical atricles of niosomes liquid crystal vs gel did not influence their toxicity [ 47 ]. However, the materials used to prepare niosomes confer better stability on them [ 20 ]. Niosomes are prepared from uncharged single chain surfactant and cholesterols. By contrast, liposomes are prepared from neutral or charged double chain phospholipids.
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The concentration of cholesterol is higher in liposomes than in niosomes. Niosomes are cost-effective for industrial manufacture and do not require special storage conditions, which are essential while manufacturing liposomes. The cost of liposome preparation is high because of the unstable chemical ingredients phospholipidswhich undergo oxidative degradation.
Liposomes therefore require special handling methods [ 27 ]. Niosomes possess a longer shelf life than liposomes [ 47 ]. The efficacy see more amarogentin was click using liposomes and niosomes as tools of delivery to the infected site.
Amarogentin encapsulated in niosomes was more efficacious than that in liposomes at the same level of membrane microviscosity [ 25 ]. Toxicity studies including blood pathology, histology, and specific enzyme levels related to normal liver function showed that the niosomal formulation had no apparent toxic effect [ 53 ]. Artticles, there are some setbacks in AZT administration, including hematological toxicity, poor bioavailability, high first-pass metabolism, and short half-life [ 54 ].
Changes in the micromolar ratios of nonionic articless with a constant ratio of cholesterol during the preparation of niosomes review articles pdf were associated with the changes in the encapsulation efficiency and controlled release of AZT [ 56 ].
Doxorubicin, a broad-spectrum anthracycline used for nuosomes activity, has shown a dose-dependent irreversible cardiotoxic effect [ 26 ]. Methotrexate is an established toxic synthetic antineoplastic agent used in chemotherapy, either alone or combined with other medications, to treat various types of cancers. Tocotrienol, first reported for its anticancer activity in the early s [ 60 ], was encapsulated in niosomes by Fu et al.
A novel niosome system composed of Span 80, Tween 80, and poloxamer was shown to possess high encapsulating efficiency When niosomal curcumin was added to ovarian cancer A cells, enhanced cytotoxic and apoptotic effects were noted compared with freely dispersed curcumin. This might be the result of the efficient controlled release of curcumin from niosomes [ 63 ]. Sharma et al. Two active molecules, curcumin and doxorubicin hydrochloride, were encapsulated into the prepared niosomes; curcumin was found accumulated in the shell, whereas doxorubicin hydrochloride nlosomes href="http://saleeditionquick.info/critical-thinking-problem-solving-pdf-2/critical-thinking-quiz-pdf-1627.php">learn more here in the inner aqueous core of the niosomes.
Artemisinin, pdf from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua commonly used in the treatment of fevers and chills [ 65 ], was also found to possess antitumor properties [ 66 ].
However, the use of artemisinin has some restrictions because it has please click for source solubility in water and oil and poor bioavailability. Furthermore, it has short half-life in vivo [ 67 ]. To improve the efficacy of artemisinin, Dwivedi et al.
Tamoxifen citrate is a hormone antagonist administered to refiew cancer patients with estrogen receptor-positive tumors [ 69 ]. As such, Shaker et al. Niosomal tamoxifen showed enhanced cellular uptake and greater cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and pff reduction in tumor volume in vivo [ 70 ]. Mitoxantrone has been used in chemotherapy for leukemia, lymphoma, reciew and prostate cancers, and multiple sclerosis.
Tila et al. Cytotoxicity of mitoxantrone niosomes was evaluated against human ovarian cancer OVCAR-3human breast cancer MCF-7and human umbilical vein endothelial cell lines.
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Mitoxantrone contained in the pH-sensitive niosomes showed higher cytotoxicity than conventional niosomes on the cancer cells but a lowered cytotoxic effect on the endothelial cell line. These findings indicate that the niksomes formulations may be revies in reducing the side effects article source mitoxantrone [ 71 ].
However, cisplatin usage is found to be associated with various unwarranted side effects such as nephro- and neurotoxicity [ 72 ].
It had been proven that the physical form of niosomes liquid crystal vs gel did not influence their toxicity [ 47 ]. The resulting multilamellar vesicles are frozen and shared three times and later sonicated. The size of niosomes increases proportionally with the increase in hydrophilic—lipophilic balance HLB of surfactants. Toxicity studies including blood pathology, histology, and specific enzyme levels related to normal liver function showed that the niosomal formulation had no niosomes review articles pdf toxic effect [ 53 ]. However, cisplatin usage is found to be associated with various unwarranted side effects such continue reading nephro- and neurotoxicity [ 72 ]. Tweens tween 20, 40, 60, 80 3.
Niosomal cisplatin prepared by reverse-phase evaporation technique showed a 1. Anticancer effects niosomes review articles pdf the niosomal formulations mentioned are summarized in Table 1.